Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-7

Normally the Output is sent to the screen(The standard STDOUT)and the Input is read from the Keyboard(The standard STDIN). This can be pretty boring. You can actually redirect both the Input and the Output to something other than the standard I/O devices.
To send the Output to somewhere other than the screen we use the Output Redirection Operator, > which is most commonly used to capture results of a command in a text file. Say you want to read the help on how to use the net command, typing the usual Help command is not useful as the results do not fit in one screen and scroll by extremely quickly. So instead we use the Output Redirection operator to capture the results of the command in a text file.

c:\windows>net > xyz.txt
This command will execute the net command and will store the results in the text file, xyz.txt . Whenever DOS comes by such a command, it checks if the specified file exists or not. If it does, then everything in the file is erased or lost and the results are stored in it. If no such file exists, then DOS creates a new file and stores the results in this new file.
Say, you want to store the results of more than one command in the same text file, and want to ensure that the results of no command are lost, then you make use of the Double Output Re Direction Symbol, which is the >> symbol.

For Example:
c:\windows> net >> xyz.txt
The above command tells DOS to execute the net command and append the output to the xyz.txt file, if it exits.DOS not only allows redirection to Files, but also allows redirection to various devices.

AUX Auxiliary Device (COM1)
CLOCK$ Real Time Clock
COMn Serial Port(COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4)
CON Console(Keyboard, Screen)
LPTn Parallel Port(LPT1, LPT2, LPT3)
NUL NUL Device(means Nothing)
PRN Printer

Say for example, you want to print the results of directory listings, then you can simply give the following command:

c:\windows>dir *.* > prn
The NUL device(nothing) is a bit difficult to understand and requires special mention. This device which is also known as the 'bit bucket' literally means nothing. Redirection to the NUL device practically has no usage
but can be used to suppress the messages which DOS displays on the completion of a task.
For example:
when DOS has successfully copied a particular file, then it displays the message: '1 file(s) copied.'
Now say you want to suppress this task completion message, then you can make use of the NUL device.

c:\windows>copy file.txt > NUL
This will suppress the task completion message and not display it.

Redirecting Input:
Just like we can redirect Output, we can also redirect Input. It is handled by the Input Redirection Operator,which is the < style="font-weight: bold;"> c:\windows>more <>
This command sends the contents of the xyz.txt file to the MORE command which displays the contents page by page. Once the first page is read the MORE command displays something like the following on the screen: ......MORE...... You can also send key strokes to any DOS command which waits for User Input or needs User intervention to perform a task. You can also send multiple keystrokes.
For example:
a typical Format command requires 4 inputs, firstly pressing Enter to give the command, then Disk Insertion prompt, then the VOLUME label prompt and lastly the one to format another disk. So basically there are three User inputs-: ENTER, ENTER N and ENTER.(ENTER is Carriage return)So you can include this in a Batch file and give the format command in the following format: c:\windows>format a: <>.
In the next post we will finish our Batch File Programming Concepts.

Batch File Programming Part-6

The CHOICE Command:
Before we learn how to make use of the CHOICE command, we need to what error levels really are. Now Error levels are generated by programs to inform about the way they finished or were forced to finish their execution. For example, when we end a program by pressing CTRL+C to end a program, the error level code evaluates to 3 and if the program closes normally, then the error level evaluates to 0. These numbers all by themselves are not useful but when used with the IF ERROR LEVEL and the CHIOCE command, they become very kewl.

The CHOICE command takes a letter or key from the keyboard and returns the error level evaluated when the key is pressed. The general syntax of the CHOICE command is:


The string part is nothing but the string to be displayed when the CHOICE command is run.

The /C:keys defines the possible keys to be pressed. If options are mentioned then the default Y/N keys are used instead.

For example, The command,

Defines A, 1, T and O as the possible keys. During execution if the user presses a undefined key, he will hear a beep sound and the program will continue as coded.

The /S flag makes the possible keys defined by the CHOICE /c flag case sensitive. So it means that if the /S flag is present then A and a would be different.

The /N flag, if present shows the possible keys in brackets when the program is executed. If the /N flag is missing then, the possible keys are not shown in brackets. Only the value contained by STRING is shown.

/T:key,secs defines the key which is taken as the default after a certain amount of time has passed.

For Example:
CHOICE Choose Browser /C:NI /T:I.5

The above command displays Choose Browser[N,I] and if no key is pressed for the next 5 seconds, then it chooses I.Now to truly combine the CHOICE command with the IF ERROR LEVEL command, you need to know what the CHOICE command returns.The CHOICE command is designed to return an error level according to the pressed key and its position in the /C flag.
To understand this better, consider the following example,


Now remember that the error level code value depends on the key pressed. This means that if the key A is pressed, then the error level is 1, if the key N is pressed then the error level is 2, if 1 is pressed then error level is 3 and if 2 is pressed then error level is 4.

Now let us see how the IF ERROR LEVEL command works. The general syntax of this command is:

IF [NOT] ERRORLEVEL number command.

This statement evaluates the current error level number. If the condition is true then the command is executed.
For Example:

The above statement prints Yes on the screen if the current error level is 3.

The important thing to note in this statement is that the evaluation of an error level is true when the error level us equal or higher than the number compared.

For Example: in the following statement,

The condition is true if the error level is > or = 2.

Now that you know how to use the CHOICE and ERROR LEVEL IF command together, you can now easily create menu based programs. The following is an example of such a batch file which asks the User what browser to launch.

ECHO Welcome to Browser Selection Program
ECHO 1. Internet Explorer 5.5
ECHO 2. Mozilla 5
ECHO x. Exit Browser Selection Program
CHOICE "Choose Browser" /C:12x /N
IF ERRORLEVEL 2 START C:\progra~1\Netscape
IF ERRORLEVEL 1 start c:\progra~1\intern~1\iexplore.exe

NOTE: Observe the order in which we give the IF statements.

In the next post we will see some more concepts of Batch File Programming.

Sunday, September 28, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-5

The If statement is a very useful command which allows us to make the batch files more intelligent and useful. Using this command one can make the batch programs check the parameters and accordingly perform a task. Not only can the IF command check parameters, it can also checks if a particular file exists or not. On top of all this, it can also be used for the conventional checking of variables (strings).

Checking If a File Exists Or Not
The general syntax of the IF command which checks for the existence of a file is the following:


This will become clearer when we take up the following example,

IF EXIST c:\autoexec.bat ECHO It exists
This command checks to see if the file, c:\autoexec.bat exists or not. If it does then it echoes or prints the string 'It exists'. On the other hand if the specified file does not exist, then it does not do anything.

In the above example, if the file autoexec.bat did not exist, then nothing was executed. We can also put in the else clause i.e. If the File exists, do this but if it does not exists, by using the GOTO command. Let's consider the following example to make it more clear:

@echo off
IF EXIST C:\saurav.doc GOTO Saurav
Goto end
ECHO Saurav

The IF statement in this code snippet checks to see if there exists a file, c:\saurav.doc. If it does then DOS is branched to :SAURAV and if it does not, then DOS goes on to the next line. The next line branches DOS to :end. The :end and :SAURAV in the above example are called labels. After the branching the respective echo statements take over.

HACKING TRUTH: We can also check for more than one file at a time, in the following way:

IF EXIST c:\autoexec.bat IF EXIST c:\autoexec.bak ECHO Both Exist

We can check to see if a file does not exist in the same way, the basic syntax now becomes:

For Example:

IF NOT EXIST c:\saurav.doc ECHO It doesn't Exist

HACKING TRUTH: How do you check for the existence of directories? No something like IF C:\windows EXISTS ECHO Yes does not work. In this case we need to make use of the NULL device. The NULL device is basically nothing, it actually stands for simply nothing. Each directory has the NULL device present in it. (At least DOS thinks so.) So to check if c:\windows exits, simply type:

IF EXIST c:\windows\nul ECHO c:\Windows exists.
One can also check if a drive is valid, by giving something like:

IF EXIST c:\io.sys ECHO Drive c: is valid.

Comparing Strings to Validate Parameters:
The basic syntax is:

IF [NOT] string1==string2 Command

Now let's make our scripts intelligent and make them perform a task according to what parameter was passed by the User. Take the following snippet of code for example,

@ECHO off

Copy %2 a:
Del %2

This example too is pretty much self explanatory. The IF Statement compares the first parameter to cp, and if it matches then DOS is sent to read the COPY label else to the DEL label. This example makes use of two parameters and is called by passing at least two parameters.

We can edit the above example to make DOS check if a parameter was passed or not and if not then display an error message. Just add the following lines to the beginning of the above file.


IF "%1" == "" ECHO Error Message Here

If no parameter is passed then the batch file displays an error message. Similarly we can also check for the existence of the second parameter.

This command too has the NOT clause.

In the next post we will see some more concepts of Batch File Programming.

Saturday, September 27, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-4

SHIFT: Infinite Parameters
Sometimes your batch file program may need to use more than nine parameters at a time.(Actually you would never need to, but at least you are sure you can handle it if you need to.)To see how the SHIFT command works, look at the following snippet of code:

ECHO The first Parameter is %1
ECHO The Second Parameter is %1
ECHO The Second Parameter is %1

Now execute this batch file from DOS and see what happens.

C:\windows>batch_file_name abc def ghi

The first Parameter is abc
The Second Parameter is def
The Second Parameter is ghi

How does it work? Well, each SHIFT command shuffles the parameters down one position. This means that after the first SHIFT %1 becomes def, %2 becomes ghi and abc is completely removed by DOS. All parameters change and move one position down.
Both normal parameters (%1 , % 2 etc) and the SHIFT command can be made more efficient by grouping them with the IF conditional statement to check the parameters passed by the User.

The syntax of the FOR LOOP is:

FOR %%PARAMETER IN(set) DO command
Most people change their mind about learning Batch Programming when they come across the syntax of the For Command. I do agree that it does seem a bit weird,but it is not as difficult as it appears to be. Let's analyze the various parts of the For command. Before we do that look at the following example,


FOR %%A IN (abc, def, xyz) DO ECHO %%A

Basically a FOR LOOP declares a variable (%%A) and assigns it different values as it goes through the predefined set of values(abc, def, xyz) and each time the variable is assigned a new value, the FOR loop performs a command.(ECHO %%A)

The %%A is the variable which is assigned different values as the loop goes through the predefined set of values in the brackets. You can use any single letter character after the two % sign except 0 through 9.We use two %'s as DOS deletes each occurrence of a single % sign in a batch file program.

The IN(abc, def, xyz) is the list through which the FOR loop goes. The variable %%a is assigned the various values within the brackets, as the loop moves. The items in the set(The technical term for the set of values within the brackets) can be separated with commas, colons or simply spaces.

For each item in the set(The IN Thing) the FOR loop performs whatever command is given after the DO keyword.(In this example the loop will ECHO %%A)So basically when we execute the above batch file, the output will be:


The FOR loop becomes very powerful if used along with replaceable parameters. Take
the following batch file,
for example:

ECHO I am going to delete the following files:
ECHO %1 %2
ECHO Press Ctrl+C to Abort process
FOR %%a IN (%1 %2 ) DO DEL %%a
ECHO Killed Files. Mission Accomplished.

At execution time, the process would be something like:

C:\WINDOWS>batchfilename *.tmp *.bak

I am going to delete the following files:

*.tmp *.bak

Press Ctrl+C to Abort process
Press any key to continue . . .

Killed Files. Mission Accomplished.

In the next post we will see some more concepts of Batch File Programming.

Thursday, September 25, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-3

The PAUSE Command: Freezing Time
Say you create a batch file which shows the Directory Listing of a particular folder(DIR) before performing some other task. Or sometimes before deleting all files of a folder, you need to give the user time to react and change his mind. PAUSE, the name says it all, it is used to time out actions of a script.

Consider the following scenario:
REM This Batch program deletes *.doc files in the current folder.
REM But it gives the user to react and abort this process.


ECHO WARNING: Going to delete all Microsoft Word Document
ECHO Press CTRL+C to abort or simply press a key to continue.

DEL *.doc
Now when you execute this batch program, we get the following output:


WARNING: Going to delete all Microsoft Word Document

Press CTRL+C to abort or simply press a key to continue.
Press any key to continue . . .

The batch file program actually asks the user if he wishes to continue and gives the user the option to abort the process. Pressing CTRL+C cancels the batch file program(CTRL+C and CTRL+Break bring about the same results)


Terminate batch job (Y/N)?y
After this you will get the DOS prompt back.

HACKING TRUTH: Say you have saved a batch file in the c:\name directory. Now when you launch command.com the default directory is c:\windows and in order to execute the batch file program stored in the c:\name directory you need to change the directory and go to c:\name.This can be very irritating and time consuming. It is a good practice to store all your batch programs in the same folder. You can run a batch file stored in any folder(Say c:\name) from anywhere(even c:\windows\history) if you include the folder in which the batch file is stored (c:\name)in the AUTOEXEC.BAT file, so that DOS knows which folder to look for the batch program.

So simply open c:\autoexec.bat in Notepad and append the Path statement to the
following line[c:\name is the folder in which all your batch files are stored.]:


Autoexec.bat runs each time at startup and DOS knows each time, in which

directory to look for the batch files.

Parameters: Giving Information to Batch Programs

To make batch programs really intelligent you need to be able to provide them with parameters which are nothing but additional valuable information which is needed to ensure that the bath program can work efficiently and flexibly.

To understand how parameters work, look at the following script:

ECHO First Parameter is %1
ECHO Second Parameter is %2
ECHO Third Parameter is %3

The script seems to be echoing(printing) messages on the screen, but what do the strange symbols %1 , % 2 etc stand for? To find out what the strange symbols stand for save the above script and go to DOS and execute this script by passing the below parameters:

C:\windows>batch_file_name abc def ghi

This batch file produces the following result:

C:\windows>batch_file_name abc def ghi

First Parameter is abc
Second Parameter is def
Third Parameter is ghi

The first line in the output is produced by the code line:

ECHO First Parameter is %1

Basically what happens is that when DOS encounters the %1 symbol, it examines the original command used to execute the bath program and look for the first word (argument) after the batch filename and then assigns %1 the value of that word. So one can say that in the ECHO statement %1 is replaced with the value of the first argument. In the above example the first word after the batch file name is abc, therefore %1 is assigned the value of this word.

The %2 symbol too works in the similar way, the only difference being that instead of the first argument, DOS assigns it the value of the second argument, def. Now all these symbols, %1, %2 are called replaceable parameters. Actually what happens is that %1 is not assigned the value of the first argument, but in fact it is replaced by the value of the first argument.

If the batch file command has more parameters than what the batch file is looking for, then the extras are ignored. For example, if while executing a batch file program , we pass four arguments, but the batch file program requires only 3 parameters, then the fourth parameter is ignored.

To understand the practical usage of parameters, let's take up a real life example. Now the following script requires the user to enter the name of the files to be deleted and the folder in which they are located.

CD %1
DEL %2

This script can be called from the DOS prompt in the following way:

C:\windows>batch_file_name windows\temp *.tmp

In a single script we cannot use more that nine replaceable parameters. This means that a particular batch file will have replaceable parameters from %1 to %9.Infact there is a tenth replaceable parameter, the %0 parameter. The %0 parameter contains the name of the batch file itself.

HACKING TRUTH: Say you want to execute a batch file and once the procedure of execution is complete, want to leave DOS and return to Windows, what do you do?
The EXIT command can be used in such situations. So simply end your batch file
with the EXIT command.


In the next post we will see some more concepts of Batch File Programming.

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-2

Now let's execute this batch file and see what results it shows. Launch command.com (DOS) and execute the batch file by typing:

You would get the following result:
And Scandisk is launched. So now the you know the basic functioning of Batch files, let' move on to Batch file commands.

The REM Command:
The most simple basic Batch file command is the REM or the Remark command. It is used extensively by programmers to insert comments into their code to make it more readable and understandable. This command ignores anything there is on that line. Anything on the line after REM is not even displayed on the screen during execution. It is normally not used in small easy to understand batch programs but is very useful in huge snippets of code with geek stuff loaded into it. So if we add Remarks to out first batch file, it will become:

REM This batch file is my first batch program which launches the fav hacking tool; Telnet


The only thing to keep in mind while using Remarks is to not go overboard and putting in too many of them into a single program as they tend to slow down the execution time of the batch commands.

ECHO: The Batch Printing Tool

The ECHO command is used for what the Print command is in other programming languages: To Display something on the screen. It can be used to tell the user what the bath file is currently doing. It is true that Batch programs display all commands it is executing but sometimes they are not enough and it is better to also insert ECHO commands which give a better description of what is presently being done. Say for example the following batch program which is full of the ECHO command deletes all files in the
c:\windows\temp directory:

ECHO This Batch File deletes all unwanted Temporary files from your system ECHO Now we go to the Windows\temp directory.

cd windows\temp

ECHO Deleting unwanted temporary files....

del *.tmp

ECHO Your System is Now Clean
Now let's see what happens when we execute the above snippet of batch code.

C:\WINDOWS>ECHO This Batch File deletes all unwanted Temporary files from your system

C:\WINDOWS>ECHO Now we go to the Windows\temp directory.
Now we go to the Windows\temp directory.

C:\WINDOWS>cd windows\temp

Invalid directory

C:\WINDOWS>ECHO Deleting unwanted temporary files

Deleting unwanted temporary files...

C:\WINDOWS>del *.tmp

C:\WINDOWS>ECHO Your System is Now Clean

Your System is Now Clean

The above is a big mess! The problem is that DOS is displaying the executed command and also the statement within the ECHO command. To prevent DOS from displaying the command being executed, simply precede the batch file with the following command at the beginning of the file:


Once we add the above line to our Temporary files deleting Batch program , the
output becomes:

This Batch File deletes all unwanted Temporary files from your system
Now we go to the Windows\temp directory.

Invalid directory
Deleting unwanted temporary files...

File not found
Your System is Now Clean

Hey pretty good! But it still shows the initial ECHO OFF command. You can prevent a particular command from being shown but still be executed by preceding the command with a @ sign. So to hide even the ECHO OFF command, simple replace the first line of the batch file with @ECHO OFF

You might think that to display a blank line in the output screen you can simply type ECHO by itself, but that doesn't work. The ECHO command return whether the ECHO is ON or OFF. Say you have started your batch file with the command ECHO OFF and then in the later line give the command ECHO, then it will display ' ECHO is off ' on the screen. You can display a blank line by giving the command ECHO.(ECHO followed by a dot)Simply leaving a blank line in the code too displays a blank line in the output.

In the next post we will see some more concepts of Batch File Programming.

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Batch File Programming Part-1

Hello friends in the next five or six post i am going to give you a complete explanation on Batch File Programming.Here if you read it carefully and try to understand it then i am sure that you became the master of Batch File Programming.

Batch file programming is nothing but the Windows version of Unix Shell Programming. Let's start by understanding what happens when we give a DOS command. DOS is basically a file called command.com It is this file (command.com) which handles all DOS commands that you give at the DOS prompt---such as COPY, DIR, DEL etc. These commands are built in with the Command.com file. (Such commands which are built in are called internal commands.).DOS has something called external commands too such as FORMAT, UNDELETE, BACKUP etc. So whenever we give a DOS command either internal or external, command.com either straightaway executes the command (Internal Commands) or calls an external separate program which executes the command for it and returns the result (External Commands.) So why do I need Batch File Programs?

Say you need to execute a set of commands over and over again to perform a routine task like Backing up Important Files, Deleting temporary files(*.tmp, .bak , ~.* etc) then it is very difficult to type the same set of commands over and over again. To perform a bulk set of same commands over and over again, Batch files are used. Batch Files are to DOS what Macros are to Microsoft Office and are used to perform an automated predefined set of tasks over and over again.So how do I create batch files? To start enjoying using Batch files, you need to learn to create Batch files. Batch files are basically plain text files containing DOS commands. So the best editor to write your commands in would be Notepad or the DOS Editor (EDIT) All you need to remember is that a batch file should have the extension .BAT(dot bat)Executing a batch file is quite simple too. For example if you create a Batch file and save it with the filename batch.bat then all you need to execute the batch file is to type:

So what happens when you give a Batch file to the command.com to execute?
Whenever command.com comes across a batch file program, it goes into batch mode. In the batch mode, it reads the commands from the batch file line by line. So basically what happens is, command.com opens the batch file and reads the first line, then it closes the batch file. It then executes the command and again reopens the batch file and reads the next line from it. Batch files are treated as Internal DOS commands.

Hacking Truth: While creating a batch file, one thing that you need to keep in mind is that the filename of the batch file should not use the same name as a DOS command. For example, if you create a batch file by the name dir.bat and then try to execute it at the prompt, nothing will happen.This is because when command.com comes across a command, it first checks to see if it is an internal command. If it is not then command.com checks if it a .COM,
.EXE or .BAT file with a matching filename.All external DOS commands use either a .COM or a .EXE extension, DOS never bothers to check if the batch program exits.

Now let's move on to your first Batch file program. We will unlike always(Normally we begin with the obligatory Hello World program) first take up a simple batch file which executes or launches a .EXE program. Simply type the following in a blank text file and save it with a .BAT extension.

cd windows

Now let's analyze the code, the first line tells command.com to go to the C:
Next it tells it to change the current directory to Windows. The last line tells it to launch the telnet client. You may contradict saying that the full filename is telnet.exe. Yes you are right, but the .exe extension is automatically added by command.com. Normally we do not need to change the drive and the directory as the Windows directory is the default DOS folder.

In the next post i will continue with its remaining part.


Monday, September 22, 2008

Boost your PC speed

As all we know that everyone got frustrated with slow computer speed, hate it when your computer slows down while you access the Internet. Now the solution to your problem is here,in this post i am going to give you some tips with the help of them you can easily increase the processing speed of your PC or boost your PC speed.

Tip No.1:As all we know sometimes programmes crashes or you experience some power outage that means your PC may create some errors on hard disk.This error will definitely slows down computer speed.Now the solution of this problem is here.For this you have to check and clean any errors on the computer hard disk. To run Disk Check go to My Computer. Now, right-click on the drive you want to check for errors and click Properties.In Properties dialogue box, click on the Tools tab. In the Error-Checking section, press the Check Now button. Access Check Disk to check for errors on your computer.Depending on the errors, it may take up to an hour to check and clean. This must be followed at least once a week.

Tip No.2:As all we know that while you surf the websites,your PC stores temporary files whenever you browse through the Web. Also, your PC stores temporary files when you work on programmes like Microsoft Word or Excel.This ends up slowing down your PC speed.Now the solution to this problem is here,to overcome it you can use the Windows Disk Cleanup screen to rid your PC of these dead files.To run Disk Cleanup go to My Computer. Right click on the drive you wish to check for errors and click Properties. In the Properties dialogue box, click Disk Cleanup. You can also use Disk Cleanup to clear unused files from your PC.After scanning, the Disk Cleanup dialogue box lists the files you can remove from your computer.

Tip No.3:Sometimes you feel that your computer takes too much time in searching of any file on your PC.This is because computer breaks files into pieces to increase the speed of access and retrieval.However, once updated, computer saves these files on the space available on the hard drive, which results in fragmented files. This makes your PC go slow because it then searches for all of the file's parts. For removing this error you need a Disk Defragmenter programme to needle all your files back together.For this, go to My Computer and right click on the drive you want to check for error and click Properties.In the Properties dialogue box, click the Tools tab, and then in the Defragmentation section, click Defragment. In the Disk Defragmenter dialog box, select the disk and then click Analyse.After analysing your PC, the Disk Defragmenter pops up a message asking whether you need to defragment your computer or not. Once you defragement your PC, it will reorganise files by programme and size.

For more tips click on the link:

Sunday, September 21, 2008

How Hackers hack your PC

Hello friends in this post i am going to tell you some ways through which hackers hack your pc's and stole important information and data from your pc.

Every computer has an IP (Internet Protocol) address.A DSL or cable modem connection keeps the IP address ‘always on’. A dial-up account’s IP address is turned off by the service provider after a certain amount of inactivity.Dial-up accounts get a different IP address each time they are on.
Common methods for finding your IP address are through chatrooms, looking up domain names on a domain name registrar site, or running programs that can create a log of all valid IP addresses.In a chatroom, all a hacker has to do is right click on your chat ID and get your IP address. A domain registrar can yield a website’s employees’ names, phone numbers, fax numbers, physical addresses and IP addresses. In ‘social engineering’ a hacker verbally chats you up and gets your IP address and other important information.

The Hacking:With your IP address, a hacker can send programs to your PC to test your system for vulnerabilities. He can find bugs, or holes in software. File- and print-sharing options allow him to access your hard drive, load any program on the drive and delete/change any file on your PC. He may use ‘Trojans’, which pretend to do useful tasks--like playing a video or greeting--but actually help him access info on your comp and/or even take it over. Programs that allow the hacker ‘backdoor’ entry to your comp are commonly available.They are used daily and legitimately by systems administrators for remote systems. Hackers change the names of their programs to make them look like legitimate system programs.Or they create a hidden folder on your comp to keep programs. The most common way that viruses are spread is through e-mail. Usually, the virus is not in the e-mail itself, but an attachment.

Cracking Passwords:Hackers use programs to crack passwords. Even a password-protected computer can be broken into and other passwords then cracked.A cracker dictionary has common computer terms and phrases, names, slang and jargon, easily typed key sequences (like ‘qwerty’), and phrases you might commonly use as a password.Programs to crack passwords are handed out with copies of these dictionaries. A common method for cracking passwords is to get a copy of a system’s password file. It lists all encrypted passwords on the system.

Security Breached:
A hacker can steal and delete files, load dangerous programs on your PC, involve you in computer crime. He can get your home, office or bank passwords.A hacker can see your screen as you see it, watch every move of your mouse, see every word you type Proxy problems.
Often, the hacker is not interested in the hacked system. He just wants to hack into larger systems or send e-mails. A hacker can load a program onto hundreds of hacked PCs and then direct the PCs to bomb a particular firm’s server with junk mail or problem messages.

Securing your computer:Turn off your comp when not using it Use a firewall and anti-virus. Turn off file and print sharing. Be up-to-date. Hackers count on the public’s ignorance.

Specific Measures:
Don’t visit chat rooms unless they are closed and you know the administrator. Almost never open an attachment that ends in .DLL or .EXE, even if the email is from your best friend. The only time you can open such attachments is if you know what’s in them.To outwit script-based viruses, ask an expert how you can open scripts in Notepad (or Wordpad). Then get someone who knows Visual Basic to look at it. If you’re not on your PC, but see its modem lights flash, a hacker could be testing for vulnerabilities.

Password protection:A good password is easily remembered, but not easily guessable. It should be kept a secret, never written down, never saved in a file. When a website asks if a password should be saved, say no. A password must have at least six or more letters, numbers or punctuations.The letters should be capitals and lowercase. It should not have four or more letters found consecutively in the dictionary. Reversing the letters won’t help.

Friday, September 19, 2008

Funda of GPS

Hello friends,in this blog i want to give you some information regarding GPS(Global Positioning System).Actually,GPS is a technology which is used to find the location of its user.In the begining it intended only for the military purpose,but in the begining of 1980 it is available for the civilian use.GPS technology was developed by the Department of Defense of U.S. government.In technical words we can say that GPS is a fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) which is a network of 24 satellites placed in earth's orbit.GPS is totally envirnoment or condition independent.It can works in any weather ,anywhere in the world and 24 hours a day.

Actually GPS satellite works due to the centripretal force between GPS satellite and earth due to which it revolves around the earth twice in a day in very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. At earth GPS receiver receives these signal and uses triangulation to calculate user's exact location.GPS is launched because to figure out where you are and where you're going is probably one of oldest pastimes.The user's location is calculated such that,the time difference between the transmitter send the signal and the receiver received the signal is calculated,and then with the help of other satellites the receiver can determine the user's position and display it on the unit's electronic map.In this way the position of any body can be calculated.Since,the era of GPS is started and in the next few years GPS will be at its top.

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

HardDisks in Danger

From the title you think that what nonsense i am saying, but it is true. Now it is assumed in the various harddisk manufacturing industries like Kingston, Transcend etc that within the next few years hard disks are completely replaced by their next version that is SSDs that means Solid state drives. As flashed based memories, which are only limited to RAM, but USB storage devices and MP3 players evolved into a strong competitor for HDDs.
The most significant development in this field was made by Samsung in May 2006, with the announcement of world's first notebook PC, featuring a 32 GB NAND Flash based Solidstate disk(SSD), instead of traditional HDD. The main reasons behind that why SSDs take over the HDDs are form factor, speed, boot delay, power consumption, ruggedness and many more. Regarding power consumption SSDs consume only 5 percent of what HDDs devour. According to Samsung press release, SSDs read 300 percent faster(53 MBps) and write 150 percent quicker(28 MBps) then normal hard drives. Also HDDs cannot resolve the issue of boot delay(time that PC takes to start the operating system). The Microsoft Windows XP operating system will boot up 25-50 percent faster on n SSD compared to other drives claims Samsung. One more drawback of HDDs is that no matter how well they packed , HDDs are vulnerable to temperature, magnetic fields, humidity and physical impact whereas SSD are almost immune to them.
As all we know the thing that had some advantage also had some disadvantage ya i am talking about some drawbacks of SSDs the major one is its pricing, SSDs are much expensive as compared to HDDs - while HDDs offer storage at the rate of approx $1 per GB, but SSDs cost it bout $90 per GB. Some other drawbacks of SSDs are its reliabilityand storage capacity.

InfraRed Communication

As all we know what the Infrared radiations are, these are the radiations that are not visible from naked eyes, we can feel only these rays by their heating effect. More about infrared rays we can say that in daily life the heat that we received from the sun is the form of Infra red radiation. As all we know in the electromagnetic spectrum infrared radiations lies between microwaves and visible light, hence it can be used as a source of communication. As, here I going to tell u how infrared technology used in communication.

For infra red communication a photo led transmitter and a photodiode receptor is required. In Infrared communication the LED transmitter transmits the infrared signal as bursts of non-visible light. At the receiver end a photo-diode or a photo receptor detects and captures the light pulses, which are then proceeded to retrieve the information they contain. In this way the information between the source and the target is transferred. The source and target can be mobile phones, laptops and any other thing that supports wireless communication. The main advantage of Infrared communication is that the power requirement for it is very low, hence it is best suitable for laptops, telephones etc.

The circuitry cost for it is also low. As the information transferred through infrared communication is highly secure because the data flow between the source and the target is unidirectional, means directionality of the infrared beam ensures that isn’t leaked or move to nearby devices as it’s transmitted. With having advantage, it also had some disadvantages like for data transmission between the source and target they must be directly aligned means both of them able to see each other. One of the major disadvantages of Infrared communication is that it is of short range in nature means it cannot work when the source and target are at large distance from each other. The information transmitted through IR communication is easily affected by obstacles like peoples, walls etc, if they exists in the way of line of transmission, hence complete data is not received. The IR communication is also effected by environmental condition like weather, sunlight, rain, pollution etc. From all these points it is clear that IR communication is not a suitable method of wireless communication. Today, there are many technologies exists that are much better than IR like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi etc.

Fastest DVD Writer

As all we computer users are aware of what a DVD writer do its main task to read data from DVD and write data to DVD. The comparison factor that is used to compare various DVD writers is their speed performance. Now Samsung is going to launch industry's fastest DVD writer the new Super-WriteMaster SH-S223 which offers a powerful over-speed performance feature enabling consumers to burn data at high speeds, even on low speed media.

This is the first and only company in India that makes this product first. The main facility of this DVD writer is over-speed recording, users can write at 22X speeds on 16X media and 12X speeds on 8X media. As lower speed media is more cost-effective, users can save money while burning discs at faster speeds. Now with the help of this writer you can get blazing recording speeds across a gamut of different data media types including: 22X DVD±R recording, 12X DVD-RAM recording, 16X DVD+R Dual Layer recording, 12X DVD-R Dual Layer recording, 8X DVD+RW recording and 6X DVD-RW recording. This writer also provides you the facility of burn 4.7GB on a DVD±R disc in approximately 4 minutes and 26 seconds, a 6 percent increase in speed compared to a 20X DVD writer.
It also takes less than 12 minutes to burn 4.7GB in DVD-RAM format, which is a 30 percent increase in speed over a 20X DVD drive. This DVD writer easily supports the SATA interface, the dominant interface for pc's. In addition to SAT[4] (Speed Adjustment Technology), TAC[5](Tilt Actuator Compensation) and Double OPC[6] (Optimum Power Control) it includes all the features of all the previous DVD writers.

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

The Era of Tera

As all we know this is the age of science. In this scientific age computers played an important role in everyone’s life.A few years ago we thinked that if any computer executed thousands instruction per second then it is sufficient for any task,but as the requirement increases it is required to execute millions of instructions per second for that dual core and quad core processors are launched but these were hot topics only for a meanwhile.As the demand for computing power increases,the industry is moving towards “massively multi core technology”,in this technology such types of processors are required that can execute trillions of instructions per second.

Hence in this order to achieve these task “teraflop” processors are launched.The performance of first teraflop computer is not as per requirements,there are some drawbacks associated with it,like it occupies a great space(more than 180 squares meters) and consumed 500 kilowatts of electricity and was powered by nearly 10,000 Pentium pro processors.In 2007, Intel achieved the same performance on a multi-core chip not bigger than a finger nail and consuming only 62 watts of power.

On its launching its official stated that whenever in future,if there is need for this huge computing power ,then the end products will definitely come.The company revealed the artificial intelligence,instant video communications,photo realistic games,multimedia data mining could become everyday realities.The company also demonstrated a computer based on the 80-core chip running a scientific calculation at speeds above 1 trillion mathematical calculations per second.This level of performance is equivalent to that world’s fastest supercomputer of a decade ago.As all we knows performance is not directly related to the numbers of cores in a processor because after a certain level it starts diminishing.As from all these points it is clear that "tera scale"computing has a bright future.If the world requires this high amount of computing power in future,"the era of tera" will definitely become a reality.

Monday, September 15, 2008

Indian Version of YouTube

As all we know every internet user is aware of the what the Google is and the various products of Google like Orkut, Google earth, Gmail, Youtube and many more. Here I am going to told you something about the world's most visited website for online videos i.e youtube.com. Now youtube going to take the Indian version that means its Indian version is going to be launched in form of youtube.co.in which promotes an entirely local experience highlighting and featuring the content and functionality most desired by Indian users.

As all we know what Youtube is, the most popular online video community that allows people to discover, watch and share originally created content, announced the launch of its local Indian site.YouTube India features a localized homepage and search functions, allowing users to create and share videos, discover the most popular and relevant videos in India, and connect with other Indian and global users. Steve Chen the cofounder of Youtube is very excited about the launching the indian version of youtube.They said its a new experience to bring a local version of YouTube to India considering the passion of users here for music and entertainment.

In addition to all the international features some new local features are also added to this new version such as promoted videos, featured videos, and homepage promotions, localised user interface and help center. In addition to this, site also tries to facilitate connections among the large Indian NRI community. In India, YouTube has already signed partnerships with Eros Entertainment, Rajshri Films, IIFA, Ministry of Tourism, IIT Delhi, NDTV, UTV, Zoom TV, India TV and Krishcricket, to name a few, and will continue to work with a range of partners, across a range of genres, to bring Indian content to more people in new ways.

Tuesday, September 9, 2008

Increase your PageRank

Hello friends in this post i am going to tell you some effective ways with the help of them you can easily increase the page rank of your website.These steps are very simple and any one can implement them:

First of all before we discuss how the page rank can be increased,i want to tell you what is pagerank.Pagerank is used to evaluate the importance of any webpage that exists on the internet and this ranking is given by the Google.Google page rank that is used to show the importance of any webpage is based on the number of backlinks that your website has.Back links are Links pointing to your website from another website. The more back links you have the higher your PR will be. Again links from the websites who have higher Page rank will be considered as a solid vote for recommending you which eventually gets you higher page rank much faster. Back Links from Sites having PR-4 or above are considered to have high importance than others.Now i am going to tell you some effective ways through which you can easily increase the page rank of your webpage.

1.Submit your website to search engines:
Search engine directories are a good way to get a free link to your website. They also increase your chances at being listed higher on popular search engines like Google, and overture.Most search engine directories allow you to submit to their website for free. This will allow you to increase your web presence by being listed on another search engine, and it will also be a free link. Remember the more links you have the higher your PR will be.

2.Join different forums for increasing backlinks: Try to get a link back from higher page rank websites. There are some free ways also but they will take a long time to insert your link in other websites. But if you can pay some $$ to get a link back from higher page rank websites, they will guarantee you for your link to be approved within a week.Your websites presence is very important to your survival. The more people see, or hear about your website the more credibility you will have and this increases your chances of having these visitors come back and possibly become leads.

3.Adopt Guest Blogging Techniques:Guest blogging on high PR blog and obtain one way link back to your blog. Why I got my PR in short period? One of the reason is I guest blog in LiewCF.com. Always ask permission to include a link back to yourself when you guest blogging.

4.Using ezine ads or newsletters:
Creating an ezine will probably be the most beneficial step you can take to increasing your web presence. With Ezine’s you will be able to keep visitors coming back to your website for more by using signatures and giving special deals.Ezine’s also allow you to increase your back links. By creating an ezine you can submit your information about your ezine to an ezine directory. This directory will then link to your website.

5.Using Google ads on your webiste:Creating an Google Ad will probably be the most beneficial step you can take to increasing your web presence. When you create an Google Ad you will be able to keep visitors coming back to your website.

6.Use one way links:Unlike a link exchange where two sites link to each other, a one way link is just what it sounds like. It is a link from a web site or blog that only links to you, however you are not required to link back to them. A good way to achieve this is to create them. There are a number of advertising websites out there that allow you to post an ad for free. Craigslist, AdPost and Indocquent are just a few Post your link information to them all. These are your one way links. One way links carry more weight in the Google algorithm them swapped links. However, combining the two will increase it that much more

7.Write quality content or articles:An increasingly more popular way of gaining a better Google page rank is to write articles. These articles are based off of your site. For instance, if you run a photography site, you may write an article on digital photography. At the end of the article, you might include something like “for more on digital photography, visit insert site.com”. Article back links are very effective because they are considered credible by Google. One thing to remember is to not mention your site too many times; one or two mentions per article is fine. You can submit your articles to AssociatedContent.com and Ezines or you can use article submission services or Article Submitter software.

In my opinion these are the some ways through which you can easily increase the page rank of your page.I hope it will be helpful to you.

Monday, September 8, 2008

Gmail is now ok as always

As all we know friends on 10the august at 2100 GMT, or 1400 PST their occur some problem in the gmail accounts.Gmail users across the United States, Canada and India are unable to access their online emails.After that a Google employee also reported that the company's own corporate email account was down. After one day this is known that this problem exists due to outage in the contacts system used by Gmail and prevented the email system from loading properly.After that Google officials said that there may be minor delays in deliveries even though all mail is safe.Now this problem is resolved said by a Google official and he also added that it has resolved an issue with its contacts system that caused many users of its Gmail service to have trouble accessing their online email.Now our Gmail is OK as always.

Sunday, September 7, 2008

Microsoft is going to pay $ 100 mn

Now their is a hot news from the field of computers,Microsoft Corporation is going to pay $ 100 million to software maker Novell Inclusives as additional subscription fees because in the past few years the demand of open-source Linux software is increased to a great extent.The payment to be made by Nov 1 is in addition to a $240 million payment to Novell from Microsoft in 2006 as part of a broad set of business and technological agreements to make their products work together for corporate customers using both Linux and Windows servers.

Microsoft, the world's largest software maker, buys certificates from Novell and then sells subscriptions to Windows clients who want support in making their computer systems work well alongside Linux machines.The agreement between the companies expires Jan 1, 2012. Linux is the most popular variant of open-source software. Unlike proprietary software, open-source software lets developers share code and add functions, and users only pay for custom features, maintenance and technical support. Novell said it will also spend an undisclosed sum of money to provide new tools, support, training and resources for subscribers.On this agreement Novell said that it has already invoiced $156 million in revenue from the Microsoft certificates in the first 18 months since the November 2006 start of the five-year agreement.

The pact between Microsoft and Novell stirred up quite a controversy in the open-source community because it included among other things a clause saying that neither company would sue customers of the other for patent violations.This clause was seen as an endorsement of Microsoft's claim that it holds patents to intellectual property behind some open-source software, a contention rebutted by Novell and others in the open-source community.

Friday, September 5, 2008

Access your PC remotely

It is definitely beneficial if you succeeded in accessing your PC remotely from some where else like from cybercafe.Now a days operating system giant Microsoft offers several versions of windows for accessing your computer remotely.In addition to these Windows versions there also exists a lot of programmes allowing PCs to be controlled from any browser.If we are going to use the software programmes for accessing the PC remotely,then you can use VNC(Virtual Network Computing Protocol) and the variants based upon on it.

The most recent version of VNC sends a small programme onto the other computer, known as a client or remote computer, which is used to control the home PC. After this the with the help of client browser you can see the desktop back at home and with it full access to the PC.When you install software on the PC it is asked whether you want to make your PC as a client or as a server.For security reasons the access password should be set on the server PC.The user must also ensure that the software will not be blocked by a firewall.As all we know that Internet service providers generally assign their customers a new IP address for each new online session.

To make remote control possible, a so-called dynamic DNS service must be employed.If you are going to made a comparison among the different variants of VNCs then i want to told you that UltraVNC is the best VNC available in the market.One of several cost-free VNC client programmes for Mac OS X is Chicken of the VNC.Microsoft primarily worked its Remote Desktop service, including remote control and remote servicing, into the pro versions of its operating systems.

In the last i would like to say only this "Remote Desktop is the best choice for remote control of current Windows systems".

Tuesday, September 2, 2008

Google Browser goes live

Google Inc's new browser software is designed to work "invisibly" and will run any application that runs on Apple Inc's Safari Web browser, company officials said on Tuesday.The company said the new Web browser, dubbed Google Chrome -- a long-anticipated move to compete with Microsoft Corp, Mozilla Firefox and other browsers -- is now available for download at www.google.com/chrome/.The public trial of the Google browser will be available in 43 languages in 100 countries, Sundar Pichai, Google's vice president of product management said at a news conference at the company's Mountain View, California headquarters.

"You actually spend more time in your browser than you do in your car," Brian Rakowski, group product manager for the browser project, said of the significance of offering a faster browser and forcing greater competition in the market.Google Chrome relies on Apple's WebKit software for rendering Web pages, he said. It also has taken advantage of features of community-developed browser Firefox from Mozilla Corp. Google is a primary financial backer of Mozilla."If you are Webmaster, and your site works in Apple Safari then it will work very well in Google Chrome," Pichai said.Officials said Chrome's code would be fully available for other developers to enhance.

A Google official said it planned to share code that makes Chrome work with WebKit openly with other WebKit open source developers.Apple WebKit is widely used by Web developers, not simply for Apple applications like the iPhone but also by Google itself with its mobile phone software, called Android.It is probably worth noting that they (Mozilla Corp) are across the street and they come over here for lunch," Brin said of Mozzilla employees visits to cafeterias at the Googleplex headquarters. "I hope we will have more and more unity over time."Chrome introduces various features that promise to make Web browsing faster, more secure and stable. The browser allows users to keep working even when one of its open windows crashes.
Chrome is designed to take advantage of multi-core chips, recently offered by Intel Corp and Advanced Micro Devices, which allow computers to handle multiple processes simultaneously and with greater speed, Google engineers said.

World's tech most powerful women - 2

The list of World's tech most powerful women is continued here.

Susan Decker(Yahoo):A first timer on the list is President of Yahoo Inc, Susan Decker. Ranked at no. 50 on the list, according to the magazine, Decker has used the turmoil caused by Microsoft Corp's attempted acquisition of Yahoo to reorganise her company.As the president of Yahoo Inc, Decker is a key participant in determining Yahoo's business strategy and vision. She is responsible for all of the global business operations of Yahoo, including sales, product marketing, product, and distribution across the three major customer groups of audience, advertisers and publishers.

Prior to that, from December 2006 -- June 2007, she served as the head of one Yahoo's two major business units, the Advertiser and Publisher Group (APG).Prior to her APG role, Decker was executive vice president and chief financial officer from June 2000 -- June 2007, managing all aspects of the company's financial and administrative direction within key functional areas, including finance, facilities, investor relations (and human resources and legal through December 2006).Before Decker joined Yahoo in June 2000, she was with Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette (DLJ) for 14 years.

Most recently, she served as the global director of equity research, a $300 million operation, where, among other things, she was responsible for building and staffing a non-US research product based on global sector teams.Before serving as DLJ's global and domestic head of research, she spent 12 years as an equity research analyst, providing coverage to institutional investors on more than 30 media, publishing, and advertising stocks. In this capacity, she received recognition by Institutional Investor magazine as a top rated analyst for ten consecutive years.Decker holds a Bachelor of science degree from Tufts University, with a double major in computer science and economics, and a master of business administration degree from Harvard Business School.

Ursula Burns(Xerox Corp): Forty-nine year old President of Xerox Corporation, Ursula M Burns ranks at no. 55 on the list. She was named to this position in April 2007. She is also a member of the Xerox Board of Directors, elected in April 2007.Burns is responsible for the company's global research, development, engineering, marketing and manufacturing of Xerox technology, supplies and related services.
Burns joined Xerox in 1980 as a mechanical engineering summer intern. She since held several positions in engineering including product development and planning. In June 1991, she became the executive assistant to Paul A Allaire, then Xerox chairman and chief executive officer.From 1992 to 2000, Burns led several business teams including the office colour and fax business, office network copying business, and the departmental business unit.In May 2000, she was named senior vice president, Corporate Strategic Services, and two years later assumed the role of president, Business Group Operations.She serves on professional and community boards, including American Express Corp, Boston Scientific Corp and CASA - The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University.

Virginia Rometty(IBM Global Business Services): At no. 97 on the list is the senior vice president, IBM Global Business Services, Virginia Rometty.The division encompasses IBM’s consulting, systems integration and applications businesses, with 2007 revenues of $18 billion and a workforce of more than 100,000 professionals worldwide.During her tenure, Rometty led the integration of PricewaterhouseCoopers Consulting -- the largest acquisition in professional services history -- creating the industry's largest team of business consultants and services experts to help clients apply information technology to optimise business performance.

Prior to this, she was general manager of IBM Global Services, Americas, where she led a team of more than 75,000, and was responsible for strategic leadership, operations and client relationships. Rometty has also served as the general manager of strategy, marketing and sales operations for IBM Global Services worldwide.Before joining IBM's services business, Rometty was general manager of IBM's Global Insurance and Financial Services Sector, where she led IBM's business strategy for the worldwide insurance marketplace, with responsibility for marketing, sales and consulting. She also supervised the operations of IBM's Insurance Research Centers in New York, Switzerland and Japan, and was in charge of IBM's insurance solutions development worldwide.

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Monday, September 1, 2008

World's thinnest LCD TVs

Yes i am saying correct,this year Sony is going to launch the world's thinnest liquid crystal display (LCD) TVs.This new 40-inch model, which is 9.9 mm thick, is estimated to sell for 490,000 yen ($4,478) in Japan said by Sony officials.After the declaration of Sony LCD TVs,the Japanese electronics and entertainment conglomerate will also offer the world's first LCD TVs that display 240 frames per second, compared with 120 frames for Sony's existing models.More frames in a given time make fast-moving images in sports programms and action movies look seamless. Sony, the world's second-largest LCD TV maker behind Samsung Electronics Co Ltd expects a 46-inch model with the 240 frame function to sell for around 400,000 yen.Both models will go on sale in Japan on Nov 10, closely followed by overseas launches. Sony said a slowing economy has had little effect on its LCD TV sales, and that the maker of Bravia brand flat TVs is on track to hit its target to sell 17 million LCD TVs in the year to March 2009.