Wednesday, December 24, 2008
Today you found a lot of online eyeglasses shop on the internet,but to select best of them is really a tough task.But here I am going to tell you about The popular online eyeglasses shop that is well known for its eyeglasses and also for their frames.Here they offer you a broad range of eyeglasses and frames that are fashionable and long lasting,and the most important thing is that they are available in your budget in which $ 8 Complete Rx Eyeglasses is most popular and very much liked by the people.You can also check Holiday Glass Frames From Zenni Optical if you are interested in more fashionable and more attractive look frames.
Wednesday, December 17, 2008
As all we know due to recession in the market,the cost of every thing goes down it also includes metals like gold and silver.So,if you are interested in buying any of these metals and in search of a place where you will find 100% pure gold and silver at a reasonable cost then you are most welcome at monex.com.
CAS - Column Address Signal
CD - Compact Disk
CDR - Compact Disk Recorder
CDRW - Compact Disk Re-Writer
CD-ROM - Compact Disk - Read Only Memory
CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute (ft�/min)
CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
CPU - Central Processing Unit
CTX - CTX Technology Corporation (Commited to Excellence)
--- D ---
DDR - Double Data Rate
DDR-SDRAM - Double Data Rate - Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory
DFI - DFI Inc. (Design for Innovation)
DIMM - Dual Inline Memory Module
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
DPI - Dots Per Inch
DSL - See ASDL
DVD - Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-RAM - Digital Versatile Disk - Random Access Memory
--- E ---
ECC - Error Correction Code
ECS - Elitegroup Computer Systems
EDO - Extended Data Out
EEPROM - Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EPROM - Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
EVGA - EVGA Corporation
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGP - Accelerated Graphics Port
ALI - Acer Labs, Incorporated
ALU - Arithmetic Logic Unit
AMD - Advanced Micro Devices
APC - American Power Conversion
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASPI - Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
AT - Advanced Technology
ATI - ATI Technologies Inc.
ATX - Advanced Technology Extended
--- B ---
BFG - BFG Technologies
BIOS - Basic Input Output System
BNC - Barrel Nut Connector
To easily tell if you have a crossover or not, simply look at the two ends side by side. If all the pins, 1 through 8 on both ends are all the same color in the same order, you have a straight-through cable. If pins 1, 3 and 2, 6 are swapped you have a crossover cable. Notice the TX, RX as well. This shows why in pc to pc connections a crossover is required. Otherwise one pc will be transmitting over the same wire the other pc is trying to transmit on.
Saturday, December 13, 2008
Friday, December 12, 2008
Tuesday, December 9, 2008
Sunday, December 7, 2008
Windows 95:In the Windows directory there are several hidden files, four of these will be SYSTEM.DAT & USER.DAT, your current registry, and SYSTEM.DA0 & USER.DA0, a backup of your registry. Windows 9x has a nice reature in that every time it appears to start successfully it will copy the registry over these backup files, so just in case something goes wrong can can restore it to a known good state.
To restore the registry follow these instruction:
* Click the Start button, and then click Shut Down.
* Click Restart The Computer In MS-DOS Mode, then click Yes.
* Change to your Windows directory. For example, if your Windows directory is c:\windows, you would type the following:
* Type the following commands, pressing ENTER after each one. (Note that SYSTEM.DA0 and USER.DA0 contain the number zero.)
attrib -h -r -s system.dat
attrib -h -r -s system.da0
copy system.da0 system.dat
attrib -h -r -s user.dat
attrib -h -r -s user.da0
copy user.da0 user.dat
* Restart your computer.
Following this procedure will restore your registry to its state when you last successfully started your computer.
If all else fails, there is a file on your hard disk named SYSTEM.1ST that was created when Windows 95 was first successfully installed. If necessary you could also change the file attributes of this file from read-only and hidden to archive to copy the file to C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM.DAT.
Windows NT:On Windows NT you can use either the "Last Known Good" option or RDISK to restore to registry to a stable working configuration.
Clean out old data from the Registry:Although it's possible to manually go through the Registry and delete unwanted entries, Microsoft provides a tool to automate the process, the program is called RegClean. RegClean analyzes Windows Registry keys stored in a common location in the Windows Registry. It finds keys that contain erroneous values, it removes them from the Windows Registry after having recording those entries in the Undo.Reg file.
Backup and restore the Registry for Windows 95:Microsoft included a utility on the Windows 95 CD-ROM that lets you create backups of the Registry on your computer. The Microsoft Configuration Backup program, CFGBACK.EXE, can be found in the \Other\Misc\Cfgback directory on the Windows 95 CD-ROM. This utility lets you create up to nine different backup copies of the Registry, which it stores, with the extension RBK, in your \Windows directory. If your system is set up for multiple users, CFGBACK.EXE won't back up the USER.DAT file.After you have backed up your Registry, you can copy the RBK file onto a floppy disk for safekeeping. However, to restore from a backup, the RBK file must reside in the \Windows directory. Windows 95 stores the backups in compressed form, which you can then restore only by using the CFGBACK.EXE utility.
Backup and restore the Registry for Windows 98:Microsoft Windows 98 automatically creates a backup copy of the registry every time Windows starts, in addition to this you can manually create a backup using the Registry Checker utility by running SCANREGW.EXE from Start | Run menu.
Now if you are thinking to select which type of ad for your business then no problem,they also provide you their large collection of already made commercial ads,now from them you can select any ad of your choice that suits your business.For availing all these facilities you had to just sign up them,once you sign up,you are eligible for all these facilities.If you had any type of doubt regarding any type of commercial ads then you can call them on their number or just email them,after that they try their best to sort out your problem.
Saturday, December 6, 2008
Let understanding these quotes in detail:
The format used to delete individual values is similar, but instead of a minus sign in front of the whole key, place it after the equal sign of the value.
For example, to delete the value "SetupType" the file would look like:
Use this feature with care, as deleting the wrong key or value could cause major problems within the registry, so remember to always make a backup first.
Let understanding these quotes in detail:
The layout is quite simple, REGEDIT4 indicated the file type and version, [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\Setup] indicated the key the values are from, "SetupType"=dword:00000000 are the values themselves the portion after the "=" will vary depending on the type of value they are; DWORD, String or Binary.
So by simply editing this file to make the changes you want, it can then be easily distributed and all that need to be done is to double-click, or choose "Import" from the Registry menu, for the settings to be added to the system Registry.
Credit consolidation is the way of consolidating all of the user’s credit card payments, bills and personal loans into only one monthly payment.The debt consolidation company offers nationwide credit counseling agency which in turn offers advice on the debt consolidation loan. The debt consolidation company can also help those families and individuals consolidate their debts, reduce interest rates and improve quality of life.So it is advisable for the users to visit the site at least once and to take all those offers that the company offers just for the sake of the users and to enjoy and have fun by the help of the offers available here.
An alternative Registry Editor (REGEDT32.EXE) is available for use with Windows NT/2000, it includes some additional features not found in the standard version, including; the ability to view and modify security permissions, and being able to create and modify the extended string values REG_EXPAND_SZ & REG_MULTI_SZ.
Create a Shortcut to Regedit:This can be done by simply right-clicking on a blank area of your desktop, selecting New, then Shortcut, then in the Command line box enter "regedit.exe" and click Next, enter a friendly name (e.g. 'Registry Editor') then click Finish and now you can double click on the new icon to launch the Registry Editor.
Using Regedit to modify your Registry:Once you have started the Regedit you will notice that on the left side there is a tree with folders, and on the right the contents (values) of the currently selected folder.Like Windows explorer, to expand a certain branch (see the structure of the registry section), click on the plus sign [+] to the left of any folder, or just double-click on the folder. To display the contents of a key (folder), just click the desired key, and look at the values listed on the right side. You can add a new key or value by selecting New from the Edit menu, or by right-clicking your mouse. And you can rename any value and almost any key with the same method used to rename files; right-click on an object and click rename, or click on it twice (slowly), or just press F2 on the keyboard. Lastly, you can delete a key or value by clicking on it, and pressing Delete on the keyboard, or by right-clicking on it, and choosing Delete.
Note: it is always a good idea to backup your registry before making any changes to it. It can be intimidating to a new user.
In the next post we will see its remaining part.Hope you like this.
REG_BINARY:- This type stores the value as raw binary data. Most hardware component information is stored as binary data, and can be displayed in an editor in hexadecimal format.
REG_DWORD:- This type represents the data by a four byte number and is commonly used for boolean values, such as "0" is disabled and "1" is enabled. Additionally many parameters for device driver and services are this type, and can be displayed in REGEDT32 in binary, hexadecimal and decimal format, or in REGEDIT in hexadecimal and decimal format.
REG_EXPAND_SZ:- This type is an expandable data string that is string containing a variable to be replaced when called by an application. For example, for the following value, the string "%SystemRoot%" will replaced by the actual location of the directory containing the Windows NT system files.
REG_MULTI_SZ:- This type is a multiple string used to represent values that contain lists or multiple values, each entry is separated by a NULL character. (This type is only available using an advanced registry editor such as REGEDT32)
* REG_SZ - This type is a standard string, used to represent human readable text values.
Other data types not available through the standard registry editors include:
REG_DWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN:- A 32-bit number in little-endian format.
REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN:- A 32-bit number in big-endian format.
REG_LINK:- A Unicode symbolic link. Used internally; applications should not use this type.
REG_NONE:- No defined value type.
REG_QWORD:- A 64-bit number.
REG_QWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN:- A 64-bit number in little-endian format.
REG_RESOURCE_LIST:- A device-driver resource list.
In the next post we will see its remaining part.Hope you like this.
Thursday, December 4, 2008
Capella University offers you their graduate degree programs in business, information technology, education, human services, psychology, public health, and public safety, and bachelor’s degree programs in business, information technology, and public safety that means you had a lot of option for yourself to select the right subject for your online course and also for career.In addition to this they also offers you their PhD programs for working adults.Now in the last I would like to say only this is that if you are really interested in online courses then Capella University is the right place for you.
This blog post is based on information provided by Blogitive. For more information, please visit Blogitive.com.
Monday, November 24, 2008
Sunday, November 16, 2008
Generally other online shopping store shows only you those sites products that paid them,but here at shopwiki you will found everything because its working strategy completely matches with google like as google crawls the webpages it crawls all the products that exists on every shopping store.In this post we are mainly focussing on the team sports products that they provide to you.If you want to buy top class sports accessiories in a reasonable cost then shop wiki is the right place for you.It offers you broad range of every product like baseball,softball,football,crew,field hockey,soccer etc.The sports product that they offer to you are made from high quality material and definitely suits your budget.
Now if you are a car user and wants to sell your used cars then this is the most appropriate place for you because their website buy and sell car section is very frequently visited and the probabilty that your used car sold from here is very high.Generally the main things that pop into my head is that how many peoples share their experiences with them and get rid of this situation of financial crisis.You can also visit their pasty muncher section in which you will find that,how many people already take benefit of this.In the last i would like to say only this that is if you are with them then you are definitely Munching With the Best of em.
Thursday, November 13, 2008
If you are interested in buying a iPod then here you will find the best technology in iPods from the top most branded company,some of their most popular iPods that are very much liked by the iPod lovers like iPod nano,iPod touch etc.But if you are interested in MP3 players then also there exists a lot of options for you like creative zen MP3 player,miShake MP3 player and many more like them.If you are interested in low cost or cheap iPods and MP3 players then savebucket.com also provides you cheap iPods and MP3 players.
Tuesday, November 11, 2008
To avail this service the only requirement is that you have a mobile phone that can connect to the internet.If you want to join webtel.mobi then i want to tell you that it is absolutely free and you have to just signup with them.Once you signup with them,you can reduce your mobile bills upto 80%.The best thing that i found about this company that there are not any hidden charges or any contract fees of using this service.The only thing that you have to do is go to your mobile phone browser and type www.webtel.mobi and signup with them.Once you join them your account is immediately activated and you can enjoy calling and texting with saving up to 80%.In addition to this you can also save your money when you are on roaming because this service is also available during roaming.Now if you have any doubt or any problem in using their service you can visit www.webtel.mobi/pc that is their help site.Today a lot of people across the world are taking the benefit of this service.
Monday, November 10, 2008
The physical files that make up the registry are stored differently depending on your version of Windows; under Windows 95 & 98 it is contained in two hidden files in your Windows directory, called USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT, for Windows Me there is an additional CLASSES.DAT file, while under Windows NT/2000 the files are contained seperately in the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config directory. You can not edit these files directly, you must use a tool commonly known as a "Registry Editor" to make any changes (using registry editors will be discussed later in the article).
Structure of the Registry:The Registry has a hierarchal structure, although it looks complicated the structure is similar to the directory structure on your hard disk, with Regedit being similar to Windows Explorer.Each main branch (denoted by a folder icon in the Registry Editor, see left) is called a Hive, and Hives contains Keys. Each key can contain other keys (sometimes referred to as sub-keys), as well as Values. The values contain the actual information stored in the Registry. There are three types of values; String, Binary, and DWORD - the use of these depends upon the context.
There are six main branches, each containing a specific portion of the information stored in the Registry. They are as follows:
* HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT:- This branch contains all of your file association mappings to support the drag-and-drop feature, OLE information, Windows shortcuts, and core aspects of the Windows user interface.
* HKEY_CURRENT_USER:- This branch links to the section of HKEY_USERS appropriate for the user currently logged onto the PC and contains information such as logon names, desktop settings, and Start menu settings.
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE:- This branch contains computer specific information about the type of hardware, software, and other preferences on a given PC, this information is used for all users who log onto this computer.
* HKEY_USERS :- This branch contains individual preferences for each user of the computer, each user is represented by a SID sub-key located under the main branch.
* HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG:- This branch links to the section of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE appropriate for the current hardware configuration.
* HKEY_DYN_DATA:- This branch points to the part of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, for use with the Plug-&-Play features of Windows, this section is dymanic and will change as devices are added and removed from the system.
In the next post we will see its remaining part.Hope you like this.
Saturday, November 8, 2008
Thursday, November 6, 2008
Wednesday, October 22, 2008
For more reference you can visit:http://technoworld4u.blogspot.com/
What is average salary for fresh software engineers? Well depends on your college/degree, salaries can vary from private colleges to NITs/BITs/IITs with the highest range being for IITs (offcourse!!). Do IITians work better than other guys? Well in some cases, may be not because they are capable of, but to prove that they are better. Nature of work in software companies does not give ample scope to those with more gray cells.
Salary also varies from non-computer science to computer science, MCA to B.Tech to M.Tech. The following figures give an indication of the fresh engineer salary; there is no way to compare the exact in-hand salary as the salary component also varies from company to company. If you take into account the purchasing power parity, a high salary in Mumbai may not be equal to a much lower salary in Hyderabad.Companies Packages
Accenture 3.1 lacs p.a
Adobe 6 - 8 lacs p.a
Airvana Networks 4.2 lacs p.a
Alstom 3.4 lacs per annum
Amazon 6 lacs p.a
AOL 6 lacs p.a
Applied Materials 5.5 per annum
Aricent 4.2 lacs p.a
Ashok Leyland 4.0 lacs p.a
Attrenta 4.8 lacs p.a
Amdocs 3.9lacs p.a
Avaya 4 lacs
BHEL 4.2 lacs p.a
BirlaSoft 2.2 lacs p.a
C-Dot 4.9 lacs pa(before applying pay commission)
CISCO 5.6 - 6.0 lacs p.a
Computer Associates 5 lacs p.a
CTS 3 lacs p.a
Capgemini 3 lacs p.a
CSC 3.8 lacs p.a
Cybage 2.9 lacs pa
DE Shaw 11.0 lacs p.a
Deloitte 4.25 lacs p.a
Mphasis 3 lacs p.a
Ericsson 3.5 lacs p.a
Fiorano 5.0 lacs p.a
Freescale 5 lacs p.a
Futures First 6.5 lacs p.a
Globalogic 4 lacs p.a
Google 12 lacs p.a
GE 3.5 lacs p.a
Grail Research 6 lacs p.a
Grapecity 5 lacs p.a
HCL 3 lacs p.a
Honeywell 4 lacs p.a
HP Labs 4 lacs p.a
HP (R&D) 4.75 lacs p.a
IBM GBS 3.5 lacs p.a
IBM ISL 5 lacs p.a
I-flex 2.5 lacs p.a
Impulsesoft 4 lacs p.a
Interra Systems 4.5 lacs p.a
Intergraph 2.8 lacs p.a
Integra 6 lacs p.a
Infogain 2.5 lacs p.a
Infosys 3.5 lacs p.a
Ivy Comptech 5 lacs p.a
Kanbay 2.8 lacs p.a
Kritical 5.5 lacs p.a
Kotak Mahindra 4.5 lacs p.a
L&T 3.2 lacs p.a
Logica 3.6 lacs p.a
Mckinsey and Co 7.5 lacs p.a
Microsoft 8.8 - 9.2 lacs p.a
MindTree 3 lacs p.a
Misys 4.35 lacs p.a
Morgan Stanley 7 lacs p.a (Update: 9.8 lacs p.a)
Motorola 5 lacs p.a
Nokia 3.5 lacs p.a
NTPC 7.0 lacs p.a
Nucleus 3.0 lacs pa
Onmobile 4.5 lacs p.a
Oracle 6.2 p.a
Oracle SSI 5.5 lacs p.a
Oracle ST 8.31 lacs p.a
Patni 3.2 lacs p.a
Perot Systems 2.8 lacs p.a
Persistent System 3.7 lacs p.a
Polaris 2.5 lacs p.a
Redpine Signals 4.5 lacs p.a
Rocsearch 5.2 lacs p.a
SAP Labs 4.2 lacs p.a
Samsung 4.5 lacs p.a
Sapient Technologies ( 3.57 during training and 4 lacs p.a after training)
Satyam Computers 3.5 lacs p.a
Siemens 3.8 lacs p.a
Sonata 2.5 lacs p.a
STM 4.5 lacs p.a
Sun Microsystems 5.6 lacs p.a
Syntel 3 lacs p.a
SSA Global 3.5 lacs p.a
Texas Instruments 5.5 lacs p.a
TATA Steel 4.5 lacs p.a
Tata Elxsi 3.2 lacs p.a
Tavant 3.6 lacs p.a
TCS 3.2 lacs p.a
T-Mobile 8.0 lacs p.a
ThoughtWorks 5.2 lacs p.a
Trilogy 8 lacs p.a
Tech Mahindra 3 lacs p.a
Teradata 3 lacs p.a
Torry Harris 3 lacs p.a
Verizon 4.2 lacs p.a
Virtusa 2.4 lacs p.a
Xilinx 6 lacs p.a
Yasu Technologies 3.5 lacs p.a
Yahoo 7 lacs p.a (Latest figure: 8.76 lacs p.a)
Wipro 3.2 lacs p.a
Zensar Technologies 2.9 lacs pa
Hope you found this list useful.If you found any company missing or you having any updated data,then please post in your comment.So,that I can update the list.
Thanks for visiting.
For more reference you can visit:http://technoworld4u.blogspot.com/
Tuesday, October 21, 2008
The problem that I described above can occur due to variety of reasons.For example,you may have downloaded the contents of website only partially.This happens when you click Stop when site is loading or when you open another site before a site opens completely.This also happens when you download streaming videos with the ActiveX control element "Axis CamControl".And last but not the least,some files can be hidden in the "Temporary Internet Files" folder which are used by other processes or are protected in some way.
Wednesday, October 15, 2008
respawn:The respawn action causes init to run the command that follows, and if the command finishes executing, to run it again. You're likely to see something similar to this line in your inittab file:
The getty programs provide login prompts. The preceding line is for the first virtual console (/dev/tty1), the one you see when you press ALT-F1 or CONTROL-ALT-F1. The respawn action brings the login prompt back after you log out.
ctrlaltdel:The ctrlaltdel action controls what the system does when you press CONTROL-ALT-DELETE on a virtual console. On most systems, this is some sort of reboot command using the shutdown command.
sysinit:The sysinit action is the very first thing that init should run when it starts up, before entering any runlevels.
How processes in runlevels start
You are now ready to learn how init starts the system services, just before it lets you log in. Recall this inittab line from earlier:
This small line triggers many other programs. rc stands for run commands, and you will hear people refer to the commands as scripts, programs, or services. So, where are these commands, anyway?
For runlevel 5, in this example, the commands are probably either in /etc/rc.d/rc5.d or /etc/rc5.d. Runlevel 1 uses rc1.d, runlevel 2 uses rc2.d, and so on. You might find the following items in the rc5.d directory:
S10sysklogd S20ppp S99gpm
S12kerneld S25netstd_nfs S99httpd
S15netstd_init S30netstd_misc S99rmnologin
S18netbase S45pcmcia S99sshd
The rc 5 command starts programs in this runlevel directory by running the following commands:
Notice the start argument in each command. The S in a command name means that the command should run in start mode, and the number (00 through 99) determines where in the sequence rc starts the command.
The rc*.d commands are usually shell scripts that start programs in /sbin or /usr/sbin. Normally, you can figure out what one of the commands actually does by looking at the script with less or another pager program.
You can start one of these services by hand. For example, if you want to start the httpd Web server program manually, run S99httpd start. Similarly, if you ever need to kill one of the services when the machine is on, you can run the command in the rc*.d directory with the stop argument (S99httpd stop, for instance).
Some rc*.d directories contain commands that start with K (for "kill," or stop mode). In this case, rc runs the command with the stop argument instead of start. You are most likely to encounter K commands in runlevels that shut the system down.
Adding and removing services
If you want to add, delete, or modify services in the rc*.d directories, you need to take a closer look at the files inside. A long listing reveals a structure like this:
lrwxrwxrwx . . . S10sysklogd -> ../init.d/sysklogd
lrwxrwxrwx . . . S12kerneld -> ../init.d/kerneld
lrwxrwxrwx . . . S15netstd_init -> ../init.d/netstd_init
lrwxrwxrwx . . . S18netbase -> ../init.d/netbase
The commands in an rc*.d directory are actually symbolic links to files in an init.d directory, usually in /etc or /etc/rc.d. Linux distributions contain these links so that they can use the same startup scripts for all runlevels. This convention is by no means a requirement, but it often makes organization a little easier.
Monday, October 13, 2008
As it turns out, there isn't much to the boot process:
1. A boot loader finds the kernel image on the disk, loads it into memory, and starts it.
2. The kernel initializes the devices and its drivers.
3. The kernel mounts the root filesystem.
4. The kernel starts a program called init.
5. init sets the rest of the processes in motion.
6. The last processes that init starts as part of the boot sequence allow you to log in.
Identifying each stage of the boot process is invaluable in fixing boot problems and understanding the system as a whole. To start, zero in on the boot loader, which is the initial screen or prompt you get after the computer does its power-on self-test, asking which operating system to run. After you make a choice, the boot loader runs the Linux kernel, handing control of the system to the kernel.
There is a detailed discussion of the kernel elsewhere in this book from which this article is excerpted. This article covers the kernel initialization stage, the stage when the kernel prints a bunch of messages about the hardware present on the system. The kernel starts init just after it displays a message proclaiming that the kernel has mounted the root filesystem:
VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.
Soon after, you will see a message about init starting, followed by system service startup messages, and finally you get a login prompt of some sort.
NOTE On Red Hat Linux, the init note is especially obvious, because it "welcomes" you to "Red Hat Linux." All messages thereafter show success or failure in brackets at the right-hand side of the screen.
Most of this chapter deals with init, because it is the part of the boot sequence where you have the most control.
There is nothing special about init. It is a program just like any other on the Linux system, and you'll find it in /sbin along with other system binaries. The main purpose of init is to start and stop other programs in a particular sequence. All you have to know is how this sequence works.
There are a few different variations, but most Linux distributions use the System V style discussed here. Some distributions use a simpler version that resembles the BSD init, but you are unlikely to encounter this.
At any given time on a Linux system, a certain base set of processes is running. This state of the machine is called its runlevel, and it is denoted with a number from 0 through 6. The system spends most of its time in a single runlevel. However, when you shut the machine down, init switches to a different runlevel in order to terminate the system services in an orderly fashion and to tell the kernel to stop. Yet another runlevel is for single-user mode, discussed later.
The easiest way to get a handle on runlevels is to examine the init configuration file, /etc/inittab. Look for a line like the following:
This line means that the default runlevel on the system is 5. All lines in the inittab file take this form, with four fields separated by colons occurring in the following order:
# A unique identifier (a short string, such as id in the preceding example)
# The applicable runlevel number(s)
# The action that init should take (in the preceding example, the action is to set the default runlevel to 5)
# A command to execute (optional)
There is no command to execute in the preceding initdefault example because a command doesn't make sense in the context of setting the default runlevel. Look a little further down in inittab, until you see a line like this:
This line triggers most of the system configuration and services through the rc*.d and init.d directories. You can see that init is set to execute a command called /etc/rc.d/rc 5 when in runlevel 5. The wait action tells when and how init runs the command: run rc 5 once when entering runlevel 5, and then wait for this command to finish before doing anything else.
Friday, October 10, 2008
How it works:It's possible to set up a name server as authoritative for any domain you choose, allowing you to specify the DNS records for that domain. You can also configure most computers to be sort of mini-nameservers for themselves, so that they check their own DNS records before asking a nameserver. Either way, you get to say what hostname points to what IP address. If you haven't guessed already, the way you block ads it to provide bogus information about the domains we don't want to see - ie, all those servers out there that dedicate their existence to spewing out banner ads.
The hosts file:Probably the most common way people block ads like this is with something called the "hosts file". The hosts file is a simple list of hostnames and their corresponding IP addresses, which your computer looks at every time you try and contact a previously unknown hostname. If it finds an entry for the computer you're trying to reach, it sets the IP address for that computer to be whatever's in the hosts file.
127.0.0.1 is a special IP address which, to a computer, always means that computer. Any time a machine sends a network request to 127.0.0.1, it is talking to itself. This is very useful when it comes to blocking ads, because all we have to do is specify the IP address of any ad server to be 127.0.0.1. And to do that, all we have to do is edit the hosts file. What will happen then is something like this:
1. you visit a web page
2. the web page contains a banner ad stored on the server "ads.example.com"
3. your computer says "ads.example.com? never heard of it. wait a second, let's see if I've got the number on me..."
4. your computer finds its hosts file and checks to see if ads.example.com is listed
5. it finds the hostname, which points to 127.0.0.1
6. "great", says the computer, and sends off a request to 127.0.0.1 for the banner ad that's supposed to be on the page
7. "oh", says the computer, and fails to show anything because it just sent a request to itself for a banner ad
Where's my hosts file?
* Windows 95 / 98 / ME: C:\Windows (I think)
* Windows NT: C:\WinNT\hosts
* Windows 2000: C:\WinNT\system32\drivers\etc\
* Windows XP: C:\Windows\System32\drivers\etc
* FreeBSD / Linux / Mac OS X / Unixish operating systems: /etc/hosts
* Classic Mac OS: please read this helpful information submitted by David "iNerd" B
* Mac OS 9: Marcia Skidmore sent in details that hopefully explain what you need to know.
The format of the hosts file is very simple - IP address, whitespace, then a list of hostnames (except for older Macs; please see above). However, you don't need to know anything about the format if you don't want to as you can just view the list hosts file.
Of course, that's not the only way to use the list, but it's probably the most simple for most people.
Here is the hosts list which are serving you the ads just append it to your hosts file and enjoy ad free surfing makes things faster. if you want ad from certain site then just remove it from the list below.
For more list you can post a comment.
Wednesday, October 8, 2008
20.Registry Hacks:Editing the Windows Registry, while much more common now than in years past, is still not to be entered into lightly. You can break Windows, cause boot failure. I know you're gonna do it anyway; why else would you be reading this. Just be careful, OK?
These are few because, for the most part WinXP can be customized through the interlace or with third-party freeware (as above).All of the tips below require running regedit. To do so, hit 'Start/Run' then type 'regedit' and follow the instructions.
Naturally, I take no responsibility for any damage or loss of data incurred in the remote possibility that something goes terribly wrong.
21:The Ultimate Appearance Tweak:Microsoft said: "You can connect up to 10 monitors to your Windows XP-based computer and display numerous programs or windows at one time. You can use your mouse to move items from one monitor to another. You can open a different file on each monitor. Or several. Or you can stretch one item across several monitors; so for example, you can see more columns in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, or the entire layout of a Web page, without scrolling." Consider it. Monitors and PCI video cards are pretty cheap now. Windows recognizes the addition & allows easy adjustments on the 'Display Properties/Settings' menu.
23.Save Streaming Media:It's cool to listen to MP3s (or watch movies) over the Internet. Often, saving this media, however, seems impossible. Hey, if it plays on your computer, it's on your hard drive. Once the file is fully loaded and with folder view set to show hidden and systems folders, searches for the media (.mp3 or .mpg). There it is!
23.Securing the Paging File:If you're truly concerned about the possibility of your computer falling into the wrong hands, you should be sure that you don't leave any tracks in the paging file. By default, when you shut down your system, the paging file remains intact. People who've access to your computer could conceivably look through the unencrypted paging file to find information they shouldn't have.
24.Assign a Keyboard Shortcut:Click in the Shortcut Key field and press a keyboard combination that you want to use for launching or switching to this program. The shortcut key you assign must consist of one character key (a letter, number, or symbol) plus at least two of the following three keys: Ctrl, Alt, and Shift. (If you press a character key only, Windows automatically adds Ctrl+Alt.)
Shortcut keys work only when assigned to a program shortcut on the Start menu, the Programs menu, or the Desktop. The shortcuts you define will not work if it conflicts with a combination used in the program whose window has the focus.
Please remember, I cannot accept responsibility with what you decide to do with these tips. These tips act as a guide to tweaking and changing Windows XP from the default settings. If you are unsure about how to make these changes then don't meddle !.
Tuesday, October 7, 2008
12.Enable ClearType on the Welcome Screen!:
As laptop users and other LCD owners are quickly realizing, Microsoft's ClearType technology in Windows XP really makes a big difference for readability. But the this feature is enabled on a per-user basis in Windows XP, so you can't see the effect on the Welcome screen; it only appears after you logon.
But you can fix that. Fire up the Registry Editor and look for the following keys:
(default user) HKEY_USERS \ .Default \ Control Panel \ Desktop \
FontSmoothing (String Value)
HKEY_USERS \ .Default \ Control Panel \ Desktop \
FontSmoothingType (Hexadecimal DWORD Value)
Make sure both of these values are set to 2 and you'll have ClearType enabled on the Welcome screen and on each new user by default.
13.Change User Picture:Click on the Icon at the top of the start menu. Select desired picture from resulting screen Windows 2000 style logon. To revert back to the Win2k style logon so you can log on as the administrator and other options, press ctrl+alt+delete twice at the logon screen. Change the location of the My Music or My Pictures folders:
In Windows 2000, Microsoft added the ability to right-click the My Documents folder and choose a new location for that folder in the shell. With Windows XP, Microsoft has elevated the My Music and My Pictures folders to the same "special shell folder" status of My Documents, but they never added a similar (and simple) method for changing those folder's locations. However, it is actually pretty easy to change the location of these folders, using the following method.
Open a My Computer window and navigate to the location where you'd like My Music (or My Pictures) to reside. Then, open the My Documents folder in a different window. Drag the My Music (or My Pictures) folder to the other window, and Windows XP will update all of the references to that folder to the new location, including the Start menu.
14.Protect Your Files From Unauthorized Users:Other users with permission to delete a file (users with Modify or Full Control permission) can't use your encrypted files-but they can make them difficult for you to use. Any such user can rename your files, which can make them difficult to find, and can also delete your files. (Even if the user merely deletes them to the Recycle Bin and doesn't remove them altogether, the deleted files are unavailable to you because you don't have access to any other user's Recycle Bin.) Therefore, if you're concerned about protecting your files from other authorized users as well as from a thief who steals your computer, you should modify the NTFS permissions to prevent any type of modification by other users.
15.Shutdown Your System in a Hurry:If you need to shut down in a hurry-or if a frozen application prevents you from shutting down in the normal ways-you can use the following procedure. Be aware, however, that you won't get an opportunity to save open documents. To perform an emergency shutdown, press Ctrl+Alt+Del to display Task Manager. Open the Shut down menu and hold down the Ctrl key as you click the Turn Off command. Poof! If your computer is part of a domain, the procedure is similar. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del and then hold down Ctrl when you click Shut Down. In this situation, you'll get a warning message pointing out-quite correctly-that this should be used only as a last resort.
16.Provide Personal Support:It never fails: when friends, co-workers, or family members discover that you're a Windows expert, you get pressed into service as an unpaid support technician. If the party asking for help is running any edition of Windows XP and has an active Internet connection, your job is much easier. Have the other person send you a Remote Assistance request; when you accept the request, you connect directly to their computer and can edit Registry settings, fix file associations, set System options, and perform just about any other troubleshooting or repair task, just as if you were sitting at the other person's desk.
17.Quickly Fix Connectivity Problems:Are you having trouble connecting to other computers on your local area network? If your network uses a hardware firewall that assigns IP addresses to each machine and you're certain you've configured all other components correctly, check to see whether the Internet Connection Firewall is enabled. That component can effectively block communication between PCs on the network.
18.Hack IE Title Bar:This can be an impressive bit of personalization. Use your name or moniker to brand Internet Explorer. Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\ and left-click on Main to change the string "Window Title" to whatever you wish.
Monday, October 6, 2008
1.Lock XP Workstation:You can lock your XP workstation with two clicks of the mouse. Create a new shortcut on your desktop using a right mouse click, and enter 'rundll32.exe user32.dll, LockWorkStation' in the location field. Give the shortcut a name you like. That's it -- just double click on it and your computer will be locked. And if that's not easy enough, Windows key + L will do the same.
2.Remove Windows XP system software:XP hides some system software you might want to remove, such as Windows Messenger, but you can tickle it and make it disgorge everything. Using Notepad or Edit, edit the text file /windows/inf/sysoc.inf, search for the word 'hide' and remove it. You can then go to the Add or Remove Programs in the Control Panel, select Add/Remove Windows Components and there will be your prey, exposed and vulnerable.
3.New commands:For those skilled in the art of DOS batch files, XP has a number of interesting new commands. These include 'eventcreate' and 'eventtriggers' for creating and watching system events, 'typeperf' for monitoring performance of various subsystems, and 'schtasks' for handling scheduled tasks. As usual, typing the command name followed by /? will give a list of options -- they're all far too baroque to go into here.
4.Windows XP supports IPv6:XP has IP version 6 support -- the next generation of IP. Unfortunately this is more than your ISP has, so you can only experiment with this on your LAN. Type 'ipv6 install' into Run... (it's OK, it won't ruin your existing network setup) and then 'ipv6 /?' at the command line to find out more. If you don't know what IPv6 is, don't worry and don't bother.
5.Kill tasks from the command line:You can at last get rid of tasks on the computer from the command line by using 'taskkill /pid' and the task number, or just 'tskill' and the process number. Find that out by typing 'tasklist', which will also tell you a lot about what's going on in your system.
6.Enable ClearType by default:XP has ClearType -- Microsoft's anti-aliasing font display technology-- but doesn't have it enabled by default. It's well worth trying, especially if you were there for DOS and all those years of staring at a screen have given you the eyes of an astigmatic bat. To enable ClearType, right click on the desktop, select Properties, Appearance, Effects, select ClearType from the second drop-down menu and enable the selection. Expect best results on laptop displays. If you want to use ClearType on the Welcome login screen as well, set the registry entry
HKEY_USERS/.DEFAULT/ControlPanel/Desktop/FontSmoothingType to 2.
7.Run program as different user:You can run a program as a different user without logging out and back in again. Right click the icon, select Run As... and enter the user name and password you want to use. This only applies for that run. The trick is particularly useful if you need to have administrative permissions to install a program, which many require. Note that you can have some fun by running programs multiple times on the same system as different users, but this can have unforeseen effects.
8.Speed up the Start Menu:The Start Menu can be leisurely when it decides to appear, but you can speed things along by changing the registry entry HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Control Panel/Desktop/MenuShowDelay from the default 400 to something a little snappier. Like 0.
9.Rename multiple files at once:You can rename loads of files at once in Windows Explorer. Highlight a set of files in a window, then right click on one and rename it. All the other files will be renamed to that name, with individual numbers in brackets to distinguish them. Also, in a folder you can arrange icons in alphabetized groups by View, Arrange Icon By... Show In-Groups.
10.Show cover art in Media Player:Windows Media Player will display the cover art for albums as it plays the tracks -- if it found the picture on the Internet when you copied the tracks from the CD. If it didn't, or if you have lots of pre-WMP music files, you can put your own copy of the cover art in the same directory as the tracks. Just call it folder.jpg and Windows Media Player will pick it up and display it.
In the next post I will tell you some more Windows XP tips.
Thursday, October 2, 2008
c:\windows> echo y | del *.*
This command is pretty self explanatory, y is sent to the command del *.*
Batch File Programming can be very easy and quite useful. The only thing that one needs to be able to become a Batch File Programming nerd, is adequate knowledge of DOS commands. I suggest you surf the net or get a book on DOS commands and really lick the pages off the book, only then can you become an expert.
Making your own Syslog Daemon:We can easily combine the power of batch file programs and the customizable Windows Interface to make our own small but efficient System Logging Daemon.Basically this Syslog Daemon can keep a track of the files opened(any kind of files), the time at which the files were opened also actually post the log of the User's activities on to the web, so that the System Administrator can keep a eye on things.
Simply follow the following steps to make the daemon-:
NOTE: In the following example, I am making a syslog daemon which keeps an eye on what text files were opened by the User. You can easily change what files you want it to keep an eye on by simply following the same steps.
1. ASSOCIATING THE FILES TO BE MONITORED TO THE LOGGER:Actually this step is not the first, but being the easiest, I have mentioned it earlier. The first thing to do is to
associate the text files(*.txt) files to our batch file which contains the code to log the User's activities. You can of course keep an eye on other files as well, the procedure is almost similar. Anyway, we associate .txt files to our batch program so that each time a .txt file is opened, the batch file is also executed. To do this, we need to change the File Associations of .txt files.
For more information on Changing File Associations, refer to the Windows Help Files, simply type Associations and search. Anyway to change the associations of .txt files and to point them to our batch file, simply do the below:
Locate any .txt file on your system, select it(click once) and Press the SHIFT key. Keeping the SHIFT key pressed, right click on the .txt file to bring up the OPEN WITH... option. Clicking on the OPEN WITH... option will bring up OPEN WITH dialog box. Now click on the OTHER button and locate the batch file program which contains the logging code and click on OPEN and OK.
Now each time a .txt file is opened, the batch file is also executed, hence logging all interactions of the User with .txt files.
2. Creating the Log File:Now you need to create a text file, which actually will act like a log file and will log the activities of the User. This log file will contain the filename and the time at which the .txt file was opened. Create a new blank text file in the same directory as the batch file. Now change the attributes of this log file and make it hidden by changing it's attributes by issuing the ATTRIB command.
C:\windows>attrib xyz.txt +h
This will ensure that a lamer will not know as to where the log file is located.
3. CODING THE LOGGING BATCH FILE:The coding of the actual batch file which will log the User's activities and post it on the web is quite simple. If you have read this tutorial properly till now, then you would easily be able to understand it, although I still have inserted comments for novices.
echo %1 >> xyz.txt /* Send the file name of the file opened to the log file, xyz.txt */
notepad %1 /* Launch Notepad so that the lamer does not know something is wrong. */
This logging file will only log the filename of the text file which was opened by the unsuspecting lamer, say you want to also log the time at which a particular file was opened, then you simply make use of the 'time' command. The only thing that one needs to keep in mind is that after giving the TIME command , we need to press enter too, which in turn has to entered in the batch file too.Say you, who are the system administrator does not have physical access or have gone on a business trip, but have access to the net and need to keep in touch with the server log file, then you easily link the log file to a HTML file and easily view it on the click of a button. You could also make this part of the site password protected or even better form a public security watch contest where the person who spots something fishy wins a prize or something, anyway the linking can easily be done by creating an .htm or. html file and inserting the following snippet of code:
4. Enhancing the logging Batch file to escape the eyes of the Lamer:To enhance the functioning of our logging daemon, we need to first know it's normal functioning.Normally, if you have followed the above steps properly, then each time a .txt file is opened, the batch file is launched(in a new window, which is maximized) and which in turn launches Notepad. Once the filename and time have been logged, the batch file Window does not close automatically and the User has to exit from the Window manually. So maybe someone even remotely intelligent will suspect something fishy. We can configure our batch file to work minimized and to close itself after the logging process has been completed.
To do this simply follow the following steps-:
a) Right Click on the Batch File.
b) Click on properties from the Pop up menu.
c) In the Program tab click on the Close on Exit option.
d) Under the same tab, under the RUN Input box select Minimized.
e) Click on Apply and voila the batch file is now more intelligent
This was just an example of a simple batch file program. You can easily create a more intelligent and more useful program using batch code.
Tuesday, September 30, 2008
Normally the Output is sent to the screen(The standard STDOUT)and the Input is read from the Keyboard(The standard STDIN). This can be pretty boring. You can actually redirect both the Input and the Output to something other than the standard I/O devices.
To send the Output to somewhere other than the screen we use the Output Redirection Operator, > which is most commonly used to capture results of a command in a text file. Say you want to read the help on how to use the net command, typing the usual Help command is not useful as the results do not fit in one screen and scroll by extremely quickly. So instead we use the Output Redirection operator to capture the results of the command in a text file.
c:\windows>net > xyz.txt
This command will execute the net command and will store the results in the text file, xyz.txt . Whenever DOS comes by such a command, it checks if the specified file exists or not. If it does, then everything in the file is erased or lost and the results are stored in it. If no such file exists, then DOS creates a new file and stores the results in this new file.
Say, you want to store the results of more than one command in the same text file, and want to ensure that the results of no command are lost, then you make use of the Double Output Re Direction Symbol, which is the >> symbol.
c:\windows> net >> xyz.txt
The above command tells DOS to execute the net command and append the output to the xyz.txt file, if it exits.DOS not only allows redirection to Files, but also allows redirection to various devices.
DEVICE NAME USED DEVICE:
AUX Auxiliary Device (COM1)
CLOCK$ Real Time Clock
COMn Serial Port(COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4)
CON Console(Keyboard, Screen)
LPTn Parallel Port(LPT1, LPT2, LPT3)
NUL NUL Device(means Nothing)
Say for example, you want to print the results of directory listings, then you can simply give the following command:
c:\windows>dir *.* > prn
The NUL device(nothing) is a bit difficult to understand and requires special mention. This device which is also known as the 'bit bucket' literally means nothing. Redirection to the NUL device practically has no usage
but can be used to suppress the messages which DOS displays on the completion of a task.
when DOS has successfully copied a particular file, then it displays the message: '1 file(s) copied.'
Now say you want to suppress this task completion message, then you can make use of the NUL device.
c:\windows>copy file.txt > NUL
This will suppress the task completion message and not display it.
Just like we can redirect Output, we can also redirect Input. It is handled by the Input Redirection Operator,which is the < style="font-weight: bold;"> c:\windows>more <>
This command sends the contents of the xyz.txt file to the MORE command which displays the contents page by page. Once the first page is read the MORE command displays something like the following on the screen: ......MORE...... You can also send key strokes to any DOS command which waits for User Input or needs User intervention to perform a task. You can also send multiple keystrokes.
a typical Format command requires 4 inputs, firstly pressing Enter to give the command, then Disk Insertion prompt, then the VOLUME label prompt and lastly the one to format another disk. So basically there are three User inputs-: ENTER, ENTER N and ENTER.(ENTER is Carriage return)So you can include this in a Batch file and give the format command in the following format: c:\windows>format a: <>.
In the next post we will finish our Batch File Programming Concepts.